Vitamin D is commonly known as the sun’s vitamin, because the skin produces it when exposed to sunlight. Getting enough vitamin D is important for good health, as it helps keep bones strong and healthy, strengthens the immune system and can protect the body against many damaging conditions.
Despite its importance, approximately 42% of people in the United States have a vitamin D deficiency. This number amounts to a staggering 69% in Spanish-speaking people. However, there are other groups of people who have greater needs for vitamin D because of age, where they live and certain health conditions.
Discover how much vitamin D you need daily to maintain your long-term health.
It belongs to the family of fat – soluble vitamins , including vitamins A, D, E and K . These vitamins are absorbed very well with fat, and are stored in the liver and fatty tissues. There are two main ways in the diet:
However, sunlight is the best natural source of vitamin D3. The ultraviolet (UV) rays of sunlight convert cholesterol into the skin into vitamin D3. Before the body can use dietary vitamin D, a series of steps must be activated.
First, the liver converts dietary vitamin D into the storage form of vitamin D. Later, the kidneys transform the storage form into the active form of vitamin D used by the body.
The main role of vitamin D in the body is to control blood levels of calcium and phosphorus. These minerals are important for healthy bones.
Research shows that vitamin D strengthens the immune system and can reduce the risk of heart disease and certain cancers. A low level is related to increased risk of fractures and falls, heart disease, multiple sclerosis, various cancers and even death.
It suggests a consumption of 10-20 micrograms (mcg) of vitamin D to meet the needs of all healthy people. However, many experts believe that it is a low amount.
The needs for vitamin D depend on a variety of factors. These include age, skin color, and current levels of vitamin D in blood, location and sun exposure. For example, an analysis of five studies examined the relationship between blood levels of vitamin D and colorectal cancer, finding that people with the highest levels of vitamin D had a 50% lower risk of colorectal cancer than those with high levels of vitamin D. Lower.
Based on science, consuming 25-100 mcg of vitamin D per day is ideal to reach healthy levels of this vitamin in the blood in most people.
A vitamin D deficiency can be discovered by blood tests. According to the Institute of Medicine (IOM), the following are the reference values that determine your vitamin D status:
The IOM also states that a value of more than 20 ng / ml should meet the vitamin D needs of 98% of healthy people. However, it has been found that a level of 30 ng / ml could be even better to prevent fractures, falls and certain cancers.
The best way to increase vitamin D levels in the blood is through sunlight. However, people who do not live in sunny countries need to consume more vitamin D through food and supplements.
In general, very few foods are excellent sources of vitamin D. However, the following are the exceptions:
If you choose a vitamin D supplement, look for one that contains D3 (cholecalciferol). It is better to raise the levels of vitamin D in blood.
The toxicity of taking too much vitamin D is very rare. In fact, you would need to ingest an extremely high dose (more than 1250 mcg) or more over a prolonged period. It should also be noted that an overdose of vitamin D from sunlight is impossible.
Although 250 mcg is established as the maximum amount of vitamin D you can safely take, several studies have shown that taking up to 600 mcg daily will not cause side effects but will not provide additional benefits. The best, therefore, is to take 25 to 100 mcg per day.
There are certain groups of people who need more dietary vitamin D than others. These include older people, with darker skin, those who live far from the equator and those with certain medical conditions.
There are many reasons why people need to consume more vitamin D with age. For starters, the skin becomes thinner as you get older. This makes it more difficult to produce vitamin D3 when exposed to sunlight.
Also with age is usually received less exposure to sunlight and bones become more fragile. It is suggested to consume between 25-50 mcg of vitamin D daily.
Research shows that people with dark skin are more prone to vitamin D deficiency. This is because they have more melanin in the skin, a pigment that helps determine the color of the skin and protects it from UV rays.
However, it also reduces the body’s ability to produce vitamin D3 from the skin, which increases its deficiency. It is also recommended to ingest 25-50 mcg of vitamin D daily, especially during the winter months.
Because vitamin D is soluble in fat, it depends on the ability of the intestine to absorb fat from the diet. Therefore, people who have medical conditions such as irritable bowel disease, Crohn’s disease and liver disease are more likely to lack it. It is advisable in your case to take vitamin D supplements in an amount prescribed by your doctors.
The countries near the equator receive a lot of sunlight throughout the year, contrary to the most distant countries. This can cause low levels of vitamin D, especially during the winter months.
If you live far from the equator, then you need to get more vitamin D through diet and supplements. Many experts believe that they should consume at least 25 mcg daily.
Related Article: Vitamin D Benefits & Effects
As in other sports, those who practice rhythmic gymnastics need a very well-nourished diet that allows them to exploit all the capabilities of their body. Rhythmic gymnastics is a sports activity. Basically it is a performance in which different objects such as strings, rings, balls or ribbons are used, accompanied by music. This discipline is recognized for its beauty, since it is an amalgam between sport and art, for its relationship with dance. As in any sports field, practitioners of this sport require an appropriate physical training. Also a food that, in addition to being healthy, allows them to make the most of training, prevent injuries and extend their sports career.
If you perform as a gymnast or it is a sport that you would like to practice, take advantage of this information as we will present the bases of a diet suitable for the requirements of rhythmic gymnastics.
Due to the confluence of different abilities and skills in the practice of rhythmic gymnastics, it is necessary to develop diverse physical conditions such as:
“Due to the dynamics of their training and performance, gymnasts must strengthen both arms and legs, in addition to adjusting their body fat”.
Your energy expenditure depends on your training. That is, the amount of time you spend on it, as well as the intensity of the exercise. Therefore, we have to clarify that the diet must be individualized. Unique for you according to your needs. Therefore, the recommendations that we will give you are based on general principles, which you must adapt according to what your body requires. You must have nutritional advice from a specialist.
First, remember that the main physical fuel is carbohydrates or carbohydrates, so their consumption is unavoidable. In that sense, you should consume them in sufficient quantities, well distributed and preferably those with the lowest glycemic index. However, the fact that carbohydrates are a vital element of nutrition does not mean that it is the only important nutritional group. Proteins and fats are also necessary. The ratio between these three food groups should be 40% for carbohydrates, 30% for proteins and 30% for fats.
In addition to the need to consider what you eat, it is also important when you eat it. What you consume before and after each practice will influence both your sports performance and your health, in general. It is recommended that you feed two or three hours before starting your training or participate in a competition. You should also remember to comply with a daily regimen of 3 main meals and two or three snacks between meals.
A key rule is that you avoid simple carbohydrates, which are those that come from sugars and refined flours. These activate insulin, fat storage and inflammation. With this, you increase the risk of suffering an injury. On the other hand, you must pay close attention to how you consume fats, because they can generate a feeling of heaviness. This as a result of being digested very slowly. In the same way, foods with high fiber content could cause gas or gastrointestinal discomfort. Finally, try to acquire the habit of hydrating yourself, even if you do not feel thirsty. In this regard, you should keep in mind that the environment you are in will make you require more or less water. To the extent that there is more heat and humidity, more water you will need.
Below, we will show you a list of the foods that should be the basis of your diet for rhythmic gymnastics:
As we indicated at the beginning, these are general rules that do not substitute the advice of a sports nutritionist. If you want to follow a competitive diet for this discipline, go to a professional. He is the one who can give you the particular recommendations based on your individual requirements.
Those who train in the morning should avoid at all costs starting their routine fasting. When you exercise you spend energy and that source comes from carbohydrates. That means that, if you have not given your body the fuel that allows it to work and you start training, you are going to spend something that you do not have. As a result, fatigue will appear. On the other hand, during the exercise there is a phenomenon that consists in the destruction of proteins (it is known as muscle catabolism). Therefore, it is important that you stop that protein annihilation. You only get this by ingesting new proteins, which can be skimmed milk, eggs, salmon, nuts, etc.
Finally, it is recommended that you supplement your diet with the consumption of supplements such as Omega 3 that will help prevent injuries, as they regenerate muscle fibers.
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Present in small doses in our body and in what we eat, the essential micronutrients are the type of nutrient that usually goes unnoticed in our daily diet and at the time of training.
Although it is understandable that most of us focus more on the macronutrients that give us energy, we cannot fail to point out the importance of consuming micronutrients too: they regulate most of our functions, keep our health in balance and are essential in general to live.
To be more aware of the importance of all this, it is useful to know what micronutrients are really and what is their true importance for our organism.
Micronutrients are nutrients that the human body needs to absorb from plants and animals, because it does not produce them by itself. Its name does not refer to its molecular size is lower than the macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates and fats). Actually, micro means that the proportions in which we need to consume them are quite low, if we compare it with the amount of macronutrients that we should consume daily.
On the other hand, micronutrients fall into two categories: vitamins and minerals. Vitamins are organic compounds, which we absorb through plants and animals, and which can be decomposed by the action of heat, acid or air. Minerals, on the other hand, are inorganic, come from the earth or from water and cannot be decomposed, so we absorb them when they receive what has been integrated into them from the plants and animals that we ingest.
Although the functions of each micronutrient are different, we can say that they work together to maintain a basic balance in our body, collaborating in different processes, such as the following:
Some vitamins have in common the fact that they dissolve in water. This makes them easy to absorb, but difficult to store, as they tend to get lost in urine. Therefore, we must consume them sufficiently.
These are the types of water-soluble vitamins, and the foods and amounts in which an adult should consume them daily:
This type of vitamins does not dissolve in water. Therefore, they should be consumed with fat, to which they are bound to be stored in the liver and fatty tissues.
These are the fat-soluble vitamins, their common functions and quantity that we should eat daily:
As with micro and macronutrients, when we talk about macrominerals we do not talk about the size of them but their presence in the organism. That is to say, they are the minerals that our body needs to a greater extent.
These are the existing macrominerals, their function, and the sources and quantities in which we must consume them:
The trace minerals are needed in smaller amounts, but equally important functions fulfilled. Here are some of them:
Micronutrients seem modest to the naked eye, but they have an impact on most functions of our organism. That is why it is so important to consume them: in fact, it is estimated that by consuming them well, in the long term we can prevent diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer’s or cardiovascular diseases. However, for different issues not all consume the sources of micronutrients they need through food. That’s why we ask ourselves: Is it possible to get the same benefits with supplements?
As you know, vitamin and mineral supplements are quite popular and useful: doctors recommend them in different treatments. However, what the studies proclaim so far is that they cannot substitute the benefits of good nutrition. Therefore, whenever you can, you should ingest the micronutrients directly from the natural food.
The micronutrient supplements such as vitamin D, E, iron and others serve to improve absorption of the same among people with disabilities or who need special regime consumption. However, although they should not be the first option, they are healthy if they are consumed in fair doses, they are prepared by recognized companies and if they have the seal of quality from a reliable health organization.
Recommended Site: Micronutrients Benefits & Side Effects
Due to the fast-forward lifestyle, we usually don’t care about our health and fitness. We have to work with immense pressure and intent for the longer period of time that often results in mental stress and anxiety. Due to that, we have to face various health and sexual challenges. If you are one of us and want to improve your sex life, then you must try InstaHard. It is a natural male improvement formula which is developed to revive your sexual health. It has the healing power to reduce your mental stress and support your sex life. One of the main features of this supplement is to rebuild the performance level and strength in your body. It can easily enhance your libido to give maximum pleasure to your partner during sex. Keep reading this detailed article that will tell you about all the aspects of this product!
InstaHard male enhancement is a supplement that works on improving your sexual drive and it decreases overall problems related to sexuality. It brings about positive change in your body by enhancing your genitals and improving the intensity of sexual drive. InstaHard male enhancement is not like the usual male enhancement supplements that are made out of chemicals and brings about negative effects in your body. This supplement is made especially to make you energetic and sexually active all over again. The manufacturer stated that the product should be used every day without fail to get positive and faster growth of sexual desire in your body. It is a standalone product that acts on maintaining your body and providing all essential nutrients. The product is made just to make sure that you can please your partner on bed effectively. It stimulates your sexual performance and enhances your genitals. This product contains natural ingredients that passed multiple tests under expert supervision.
You might wonder if there is any kind of drug present in that gives the quick solution but the fact is, it comes with the natural ingredients that are put together in a right blend to ensure that the person taking it does not feel anything wrong. Of course, it is designed with best of the medicinal options and after careful research which is the main reason why opting for it shall not be a problem. InstaHard Male Enhancement is designed to make your sexual urges completely satisfactory. It employers the muscles of the body and ensure that muscle mass also increases. It has all the ingredients that help to synthesize the body proteins and then increase the muscle mass so that your body gets built up in a right manner. The main Ingredients Included in this InstaHart Mala Ehancement Supplement
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The swelling or bloating is a common problem, especially in people who do not wear good nutrition.
This condition is caused by an excessive accumulation of fluid in the abdomen, which in turn can indicate a serious health problem, or simply by gas in the intestines.
If you suffer from these types of problems, we recommend you to know these 7 ways to combat abdominal inflammation. In this way you can avoid uncomfortable pains and wear those tight pants that you want so much.
According to Spanish researchers, during and after your training, gas passes easier through the digestive system. In this way, the gas is trapped at the point of the small intestine, which causes the abdominal region to distend.
People with more defined abdominals suffer less from abdominal bloating than those who do not have defined abs, according to London researchers. The reason is that having stronger abdominals prevents the abdominal gases from pushing out and causing discomfort.
Our intestines harbor a certain amount of bacteria, which is not bad, because they help us absorb vitamins and minerals, help with digestion and strengthen the immune system. But, by taking certain antibiotics, these can cause an imbalance in your digestive system causing problems.
Taking certain probiotics can help you restore order and prevent bloating. According to a study conducted in 2011 by the Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology, it has been discovered that
Lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidobacterium lactis are the only types of probiotics that reduce swelling.
According to a study conducted in 2009 by the Baylor College of Medicine , at least one in 10 people is lactose intolerant , therefore suffering from abdominal swelling, as it is a very common symptom of this problem.
People who are lactose intolerant do not produce the lactase enzyme, therefore they cannot digest lactose, a type of sugar found in dairy products.
If you think you are lactose intolerant, the best things you can do is visit a doctor and avoid the consumption of dairy products. But, if you must eliminate dairy consumption completely, remember that you will need calcium and vitamin D from other foods.
Stress is bad enough on its own and among its multiple consequences is also that you may suffer from abdominal swelling.
When you are anxious, your body releases cortisol and adrenaline, hormones that stimulate the digestive system and cause gas, bloating and even diarrhea.
Another reason why stress causes abdominal swelling is that people, when they are too stressed, usually swallow air without knowing it, eat food too quickly and do not go to the bathroom on a regular basis.
Eating foods with sugar substitutes does not mean that it is totally healthy. Many sugar-free beverages, candies and gums contain sweeteners, such as sorbitol, xylitol and mannitol, which are difficult to digest and can unmask the production of hydrogen gas in the small intestine.
Most people think that the more liquids you consume, the more volume your belly reaches, but as long as you are not drinking water in excessive amounts and you stay hydrated, you will keep your abdomen in a regular state. When you are dehydrated, your body thinks you are trying to cross a desert with a small canteen. To fill your reserves, it stores water between the cells and in the fat cells, causing a total swelling. In addition, dehydration can cause your digestive system to slow down, resulting in constipation and a distended abdomen.
Not chewing with your mouth open is not simply an act of good manners while you eat. Swallowing air can cause swelling, mixed with your meals, the “air bags” travel through your digestive system and cause swelling and gas.
It is estimated that people swallow at least 30 milliliters of air with each drink. You can avoid this in a very easy way: drinking water with a straw, avoiding chewing gum and not talking while your mouth is full.
Abdominal inflammation is a very common problem that affects many people, especially those who do not eat healthy foods or do not have good health habits.
We recommend you follow these 7 tips that will help you stay away from those annoying pains, either due to gas or health problems.
Increasing the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables and consuming extra virgin olive oil are simple measures to achieve a healthier diet. Making the decision to adopt a healthier diet is not synonymous with starving or following strict plans. Although it is necessary to make some changes, in general, it is about eating “a bit of everything”, without falling into any extreme.
Adequate nutrition is crucial to maintain an optimal state of health and, of course, a stable weight. Although popular diets seem to work when you want to lose weight, they are not the best option to meet the body’s needs.
For this reason, more and more people are interested in learning how to make an adequate balance of food, including all groups of nutrients. In this way, not only is overweight prevented, but the immune system is strengthened to prevent disease.
The Decalogue to follow a healthier diet is based on the eating patterns suggested in the applauded Mediterranean diet. Through this it is proposed to avoid those extravagant regimes that involve consuming a small number of calories.
Its main objective is to serve as a guide for a more complete and balanced nutrition, according to the requirements of the body. In addition, it does not recommend eating well for just a few days, but aims to make healthy eating a part of the lifestyle. Take note!
The olive oil extra virgin is one of the protagonists of the Mediterranean diet. It is suggested as the main source of healthy fats in the diet, since it consists of monoinsaturados fatty acids, beta carotene and vitamin E.
Fresh fruits and vegetables are essential when the plan is to maintain a healthier diet and controlled in calories. This variety of foods contains vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber and other important compounds for the functions of the body. The consumption of at least 5 daily servings is recommended, either in the main dishes or during the snacks. In this way you get benefits on digestive, cardiovascular and metabolic health.
Many people avoid cereals because they have the idea that they “get fat”; however, due to its contribution of carbohydrates and fiber, should be part of the daily diet. The integral options are a source of energy and, therefore, allow having a better physical and mental performance.
Including too many processed foods in the regular diet can have counterproductive effects in the medium and long term. Due to their content of harmful fats and added chemical compounds, they trigger problems of overweight, diabetes and high cholesterol.
As long as there are no problems of lactose intolerance, low-fat dairy products are a good complement to a healthier diet. Due to its high content of proteins of high biological value and calcium, they are beneficial to increase muscle mass and protect bone health.
Red meats are an important source of protein and iron that are easily assimilated into the body. However, since they contain cholesterol and purines, excessive consumption is not advised. One or two portions of lean cuts may be sufficient for the weekly diet.
In addition to being lower in calories than other varieties of meat, fish contains omega 3 fatty acids that benefit cardiovascular health. This nutrient, which is not produced naturally in the body, lowers cholesterol and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Eggs are one of the best foods to have at breakfast. Because of its high content of high quality proteins and vitamins and minerals, it is an ingredient to recharge the body of energy early in the day.
Sweet desserts and cakes are not the best alternative for dessert when you want to eat a healthier diet. So, the best option to add a little flavor and sweet to each dish are fresh fruits. These do not contain harmful sugars, are low in calories and are full of high quality nutrients.
Of course, like any plan to eat healthy, this decalogue proposes to increase water consumption every day. Ingesting between 6 and 8 glasses of water daily prevents the effects of dehydration from developing, while promoting detoxification.
As you can see, maintaining a healthier diet is not impossible. You just have to start making better food choices, trying to replace those processed by organic alternatives.
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Dr. Hay’s diet is not a diet based on an empty purpose such as “looking better”. Yes, we know that a good image is important, but what are you willing to lose by looking good? Do you eat healthily to improve your lifestyle or just for appearance?
Dr. Hay’s diet is named after the New York doctor who created the plan and his main premise is the prohibition of the consumption of starches and proteins during the same meal.
William Howard Hay began developing the food combination diet in 1904 to treat him for medical conditions, including a dilated heart. He lost 22.7 kg in approximately 3 months and recovered from his severe conditions thanks to his innovative diet.
Hay began his special diet by eliminating two meals and eating only vegetables in the third.
He spent the next 4 years researching about diet and exercise. His research includes studies that indicated that it takes about 2 hours to digest starches and 4 hours to digest proteins. However, it could take up to 13 hours to digest a mixture of protein and starch.
Dr. Hay argued that the solution was to eat proteins in one meal and carbohydrates in another. He classified fruits with acids and labeled the vegetables in a neutral category that could be consumed together with the other groups. He also advocated the daily administration of an enema to cleanse the colon.
In addition, he adds that the method of slow chewing could help in the digestion of incompatible foods in some cases. It also considers the enema as a vital part of daily life for the elimination of toxins produced by poor diet.
In contemporary times, Hay’s diet is used as a weight loss plan by the general public and people interested in alternative treatments. Advocates of natural health argue that the plan reverses diseases such as arthritis, indigestion, constipation and flatulence. Hay’s diet is also considered a natural method to help people diagnosed with asthma and allergies. Contemporary versions of Dr. Hay’s diet do not recommend a daily enema. The food plan still classifies foods into 3 categories, along with rules about how foods are combined in meals. The diet consists mainly of fruits and vegetables and it is recommended to the people who make it wait at least four hours before consuming a meal of an incompatible category.
Some versions of this diet recommend eating small portions of proteins, starches, and fats. There is also an emphasis on the consumption of whole grains and processed starches. Some plans allow alcoholic beverages; others prohibit processed foods with ingredients such as refined sugar, margarine and white flour.
The diet plan of Dr. Hay’s diet is based on the categories of proteins, starches and neutral foods. Proteins and neutral foods can be combined and neutral foods can be combined with starches. The combination of proteins and starches should be avoided.
Dr. Hay created his meal plan to treat medical problems associated with obesity . He stated that a change in eating habits instead of medication was beneficial in the treatment of conditions such as heart disease, kidney disease and kidney disorders.
The diet of Hay has some nutritional principles endorsed by organizations such as the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the American Dietetic Association and the medical community. His recommendations are to eat lean meat and poultry prepared, baked or roasted as well as consuming an abundant variety of fruits and vegetables.allowed foods dr diet Hay
Although there are some very good nutritional aspects of the Hay diet, this one also has some flaws. The diet does not include the exact size of the portions that should be consumed and the control of them is an important aspect to maintain a healthy weight. In addition, people can lose the absorption of vitamins and nutrients by restricting food groups for one meal a day.
On the other hand, although the consumption of fruits and vegetables will help relieve constipation, people should not rely solely on Dr. Hay’s diet to treat conditions such as heart disease, arthritis, allergies and asthma. People diagnosed with these disorders may need medication and consult their doctor before starting the Hay diet or any other weight loss plan.
Related Wiki LInk: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hay_diet
Starting a diet can produce some fear. Understandably, changing your eating habits involves forgetting those chips you liked so much to eat in front of the TV while watching your favorite series.
Although you must give up these foods, the effects produced by a balanced diet in your body are worth much more than those pleasures. Apart from feeling good physically, you will see life in a different way and you will feel more eager to overcome all obstacles.
At times it may seem like a complicated mission, but if you think that you are not following the guidelines correctly or that you are not achieving your goals, we recommend you write down these 6 small changes in your diet that will help you obtain better results.
One of the first mistakes we make during the first weeks of a diet is to reduce the consumption of meats. If you think you should completely veto this ingredient of your meals, look no further, because here you have the best alternative.
The lean meats are made almost entirely of muscle fiber. The best thing about consuming them is that you can obtain high amounts of proteins with a low proportion of saturated fats.
These are some lean meats that you can include in your diet:
Also, remember that it is healthier to consume these meats grilled, steamed or grilled.
The issue of snacks during diets sometimes gets out of control and we overeat. To avoid these imbalances, it is convenient to remember the rule of 3 + 2.
What does it consist of? It’s very simple. The rule of 3 + 2 is to follow the traditional distribution of daily dishes: your breakfast, lunch, dinner and only two snacks.
The portions of the dishes must be complete, do not add more food, or subtract any ingredients. The idea is to eliminate those cravings and for your body to get the nutrients it needs.
On the other hand, eating three meals a day prevents your digestive system from working constantly, keeping it healthy.
Although you think they are small amounts, those snacks add unwanted calories to your diet, since many of those products are sweetened and processed. In this sense, he exchanges unhealthy snacks for fruit. They will provide you with energy, vitamins and keep you hydrated.
Due to the accelerated pace of life that we lead, in many occasions we do not take the time necessary to eat our meals.
Eating calmly allows your body to make the most of your diet, as it improves your digestion and amplifies the effects of the nutrients you consume. In turn, sitting down to eat at specific times keeps the metabolism healthy.
So you already know. Put the alarm on your watch, set aside worries and eat in peace. Your body will thank you.
Chewing food properly is another recommendation that you should take very much into account.
The art of slow chewing and pausing food helps your gut work better. In this way, your body can digest correctly and take full advantage of the nutrients and energy you need, in addition to maintaining an ideal weight.
The next time you sit down to eat take small portions to your mouth and chew slowly and steadily to take advantage of these benefits.
This is another secret that we sometimes forget but that will make you get better results with your diet: drink plenty of water every day.
It is well known that daily consumption of vital fluid is mandatory for our survival. Water represents more than half of our body, transports nutrients to all our organs and nourishes cells. And this is just the beginning. Drinking water helps improve your health because it helps to metabolize fats and satisfies the appetite.
We must drink between 1 to 2 liters of water per day. If you have trouble retaining this habit you can drink at regular intervals instead of taking large amounts when you feel thirsty.
Carrying out a good diet is not easy, but you can do it. Apart from the encouragement you give to your effort, these tips will allow you to cope with the first months and boost the absorption of the nutrients you consume to obtain the best results. Yes you can!
Recommended Site: The 1 Week Diet Review
Every day we listen to studies that prove that one food causes cancer, another that causes heart disease, and that magic supplement will help you to live forever. The media loves to report sensational stories about the dangers and benefits of everything. And we cannot blame them. These are the types of stories that capture the eyes and the “I like” on Face book. Unfortunately, these are also the types of stories that are easily misrepresented and misinterpreted.
However, it is necessary that you have a basic understanding of how to interpret fitness and nutrition research. What are the main types of studies carried out? What are the advantages and disadvantages of these studies? What statistics are useful to see?
With this knowledge and a little practice, you will have the ability to interpret the research by yourself and reach your own conclusions. Definitive guide on fitness and nutrition research
Also called observational studies, these are the types of studies that are generally discussed in the news. There are several different types of observational studies, but we will focus on so-called cohort studies.
Cohort studies look at groups of people, called populations, over a period of time. When tracking these populations. Researchers try to determine how certain factors, such as foods, affect certain outcomes, such as cancer.
There are two types of cohort studies: prospective and retrospective. Prospective studies are carried out from the present to the future: the subjects are monitored for a period of time while the data is collected. On the other hand, retrospective studies look at historical data from a moment in the past to the present. However, prospective studies are considered the more valuable of the two.
Unfortunately, observational studies can only measure correlation, not causality. In fact, one of the basic principles of statistics is that “correlation does not imply causality”. This is an elegant way of saying that although two things happen at the same time (correlation) that does not mean that one thing caused the other (causality). For example: are some people healthy because they take multivitamins or are healthy people who already tend to take multivitamins? Just think about it.
By their own design, observational studies simply cannot provide evidence to determine cause and effect. This means that you should not use these studies to make changes in your lifestyle and behavior, for that there are randomized controlled trials.
The randomized controlled trial (RCT) is used to test the effectiveness of a treatment or intervention within a population, unlike observational studies that find correlations, these trials find causalities.
Randomized controlled trials start with a hypothesis and a group of people (or, sometimes, mice). The subjects are divided randomly into groups (therefore, randomized). One group receives a treatment as a supplement, a type of diet or an exercise protocol, while another group acts as a “control”. The control groups do not receive any real treatment; they are used as an objective comparison to see if the treatment really had an effect on the group that is being evaluated.
The industry-funded research is notorious for providing truly positive and impressive results. Studies conducted by pharmaceutical companies and supplement manufacturers can be ingeniously designed to obtain favorable results, while failed trials are often not published.
We advise you to ignore results financed by the industry, and always look for independent investigations to verify any fact. In other words, always check the “conflicts of interest” section first before jumping to the details of the document.
The statistical significance appears in both observational studies and RCTs. It is a difficult number to calculate unless you have taken some statistics courses, but in a nutshell it means that if the results are statistically significant, you can be pretty sure that those results were not due to luck. However, something very important to keep in mind is that just because something is statistically significant does not mean that it is clinically significant. That is, statistical significance does not say anything about the magnitude of the results.
Clinical importance (also known as practice), on the other hand, tells you if the magnitude of the results is large enough for the treatment to be worthwhile. There is no established level to determine it; it’s really just a decision based on experience. For example, let’s say you’re trying a new weight loss pill. You give the pill to 1,000 obese people and the 1,000 people lose 1 kg. These subjects started the study weighing 135 kg and finished the study in a cut of 134 kg.
You can be pretty sure that these results are statistically significant: the pill almost definitely caused weight loss. However, are these results clinically significant? Probably not.
Although a study shows statistically significant results, it does not mean anything if the treatment is not clinically significant. If the pill helped each person loses 45 kg that would be clinically significant.
The most misleading research statistic presented by the media is relative risk. This statistic is used both in observational studies and in RCTs. It is a measure of how harmful or useful something can be.
When you hear on the news that eating red meat causes a 50% increase in the risk of heart attack, what are you supposed to do? Obviously you’re supposed to throw all the meat in your refrigerator, become a strict vegetarian and be happy to have discovered how to live forever, right?
The 50% figure cited in the news is almost always a number called relative risk. The relative risk is the rate of some result in the intervention group in relation to the rate of that result in a different group. Take the example of red meat.
Researchers want to see if people who eat meat have more deadly heart attacks than people who do not eat meat, so they organized a large observational study involving 200,000 meat consumers and non-meat eaters over the course of 10 years. In that study they found that 6 out of every 1,000 people (0.6%) in the meat group died of a heart attack, while 4 out of every 1,000 people (0.4%) in the meatless group died of a heart attack. 6 deaths is a 50% increase over 4 deaths.
However, despite the normally useless nature of relative risk, there is a time when it is interesting. For example, one study showed that the relative risk of contracting lung cancer for male smokers and non-smokers is 2,300%. That means that male smokers are 23 times more likely to get lung cancer. Once the relative risk begins to exceed a few hundred percent, it might be worth investigating.
There is a statistic that is much more important than the relative risk: absolute risk: the difference in the rates of a result between the intervention group and another group. This metric is also used in both observational studies and in RCTs.
In the hypothetical study of red meat, 0.6% of people who ate meat died of a heart attack, while 0.4% of people who did not eat meat died of a heart attack as well. This is an increase in the absolute risk of 0.2%; 0.6% – 0.4% = 0.2%. In other words, when eating meat, you do not have a 50% increase in the risk of dying from a heart attack, in reality you only have a 0.2% increase. Does 0.2% seem clinically significant? Probably not.
A good reference point for clinical significance could be 5-10%. If 8% of the meat group died and only 0.4% in the meatless group died, then it is possible that people who eat this type of meat have something to worry about.
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